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FOR VIDEO OF THIS PRESENTATION, FOLLOW THIS LINK TO BE RE-DIRECT TO LYNETTE CRUZ'S FACEBOOK PAGE: CLICK HERE
Left: When visiting this sacred and historic site, please approach with reverence and conduct yourselves accordingly. Avoid making any contact with the physical features thereabouts.
To view the livestream broadcast of this presentation and be re-directed to Lynette Cruz's Facebook page CLICK HERE
To view the livestream broadcast of this presentation and be re-directed to Lynette Cruz's Facebook page CLICK HERE
We had a nice night at the Kanaʻina Building last night with Deborah Day sharing information about the girls who attended the Kawaiahaʻo Seminary for Females between 1890 and 1893. Mahalo, Deborah! All those names were familiar, including Puuohau, Hanaike, and Wahilani. Maria/Mariah Puuohau was Kekuni's grandma. She married a sea captain named Piltz.
Seemed to me those girls didn't have much love for the Americans, since many of them signed the Kū'ē Petition. Haha! Good on them!
Above: A Power in the World -- Excellent presentation by Dr. Lorenz Gonschor at the Kanaʻina Building on the palace grounds. Hui Aloha ʻĀina o Honolulu sponsored this talk (5th in the series), along with The Kūʻē Petition Continues, Hui Aloha ʻĀina o Ka Lei Maile Aliʻi, and Hui Kūlike Kākou. Mahalo to the PUʻA Foundation for their support, as well. Lorenz's presentation was excellent! King Kalākaua was a forward-thinking man, as well as thoughtful and caring. And did I mention smart? A man ahead of his time. No wonder the missionary gang wanted him out. I live streamed but it came out sideways. Oops! Now I know better. But at least we have a record of this talk. .
̴ Lynette Cruz, Phd.
Above: Slack Key Festival -- In March nā kūpuna o Kū'ē Petitions visited Renton, Washington for a slack key festival sponsored by Manuiki Foundation. Although the vendor space was limited our kūpuna made their connections. Descendants and supporters signed in support of those courageous subjects of the Hawaiian Kingdom. Again there were tears, joy and pride as well as sorrow and disdain for the events that took place in the 1890's. I had to include the feather work of craftsman Noeʻau as well as his menehune.
~ Noeleen Caldeira
Above: Kanikapila -- Nā Kūpuna o Kūʻē Petitions joined the Pacific Ohana Foundations Kanikapila in Tacoma, Washington. There was ʻono kaukau, melodious mele and hula as well as an assortment of vendors. I gave a small stage presentation of the historical facts surrounding the overthrow of our Queen and Country. One gentleman who had been at the slack key festival the week before came to sign as a supporter and told me he was sorry that only his wife got to sign at that time, but he remembered where we would be and made a special trip so that he could sign in support. The biggest moment happened just after I spoke when a kāne came up to the table and started to look for his kupuna. I asked if I could help and he gave me the name of the kupuna he was looking for but also that the family had changed their name at some point in time. It turns out I knew the first name he had mentioned because it is the same ohana as my kuʻu hoa. We looked for both names and he decided to sign under the second name because that is the surname his ʻohana carries. He went to get his grown children and wife and was excited to share with them. When I went back to the page where his kupuna had signed, I could not see that name but saw the other name on the page which happened to be on the very next line to show his ʻohana. We both choked up and started crying. His wahine, keiki and moʻopuna all signed. It was a most rewarding moment for me.
~ Noeleen Caldeira
Above: Hoʻo Mau -- It was a fun day. We were busy throughout the whole day. Carol Kamikona, Kali Costa , Joyclyn Costa and I manned the Kūʻē Petition Continues tent and tables . Thank you to Kiʻi, Pohaku and the Pūnana Leo organizers for inviting us.
~ Clare Apana
Above: Aha Mele -- It was a beautiful sunshine filled day in Puyallup, Washington. Mokuʻaina A Wakinekona Hawaiian Civic Club's 8th. Annual event brought many kanaka maoli together to enjoy music, dance, culture, kukakuka, walaʻau, tradition, meaʻai, and aloha. There were hundreds of people in attendance and you could feel the pride each has of our Hawaiʻi, Lā Hui and Kūpuna. Nā Kūpuna o Kūʻē Petitions were working hard to bring their own back to them. We had a young wahine come to look for her kūpuna who had to go and get her grandmother to help.
One woman cried, another literally had chicken skin. An older gentleman approached the table and somehow I knew his face and had to honi him. When I asked the name of his kupuna I nearly fell to the floor. Turns out his great grandmother is the sister of my great-great-grandmother and grandfather (nīʻaupiʻo mating) that I have been trying to contact. We exchanged names of our kūpuna and he was so happy to hear the names his great grandmother had shared with him when she was training him to be the keeper of their mo'o kūʻauhau. Educated a number of people about our true Hawaiian history and the politically active kanaka and their role in the late 1800's. Even got invited to a few upcoming events. It was exactly as I had hoped and waited for. So glad I cut my California trip short to attend.
~ Noeleen Caldeira
Above: BRIDGE OF ALOHA -- It was a sun shiny warm day in the Pacific Northwest. Na Kūpuna o Kū'ʻē Petitions travelled to Ferndale, WA near the Canadian border. Members of the Lummi Indian Tribe performed a welcoming for us. They also shared that many of their tribe had Hawaiian ancestors who came to the Pacific Northwest in the early 1800's. There were many Kanaka Maoli whose ancestors migrated to Washington and Canada in attendance as well as students from Western Washington College.Many of those who stopped by had not heard of the Kūʻē Petitions and did not know the facts leading to the petition, let alone the impact the petition had on history. In addition most were unsure of the ancestors they were looking for in the petitions. I gave them our postcard and my contact info and offered to help when they get back to us. Secured signatures of both descendants and supporters. The food was ono, the mele was nahenahe and the Aloha filled the room.
Above: The Missionaries and the Hawaiian Islands --
Above: Ongoing Unjust War -- Full house last night for Keanu Sai's presentation on Unjust War with the United States. Or maybe better to say the United States' unjust war on Hawaii. A lot to take in. Good thing I live streamed so can everyone who could not be present could review it later. Probably everyone will have to review later, lol. Cleveland laid it out and no one paid attention (blame it on indoctrination in the U.S. public school system as it played out in Hawaii). But it's on record. Awesome! Mahalo to Keanu for giving us his time. Mahalo to the folks who flew in from Hawaii island and the 'states' to hear him (trying to figure out if I should say 'continent' or 'America' or some other term without offending the other countries on the American continent, lol, but never 'the mainland'). We were happy to have you. Attentive audience, good questions, lots of onolicious food. Mahalo to everybody who came out and brought refreshments, and all the helpers who regularly set up and break down. This was the 7th presentation. Next one is July 14 with Donovan Preza (still waiting on title of presentation). August 25 is Colette Higgins on Queen Kapiolani's travels. Join us for this free series. Flyers will be posted a couple weeks in advance of each presentation. Mahalo to Steven Robello for leading Hui Aloha Aina o Honolulu in promoting these educational events. Btw, Keanu is standing in front of two poster boards that share HAA's object/mission and Code of Ethics. If these appeal to any of you, you should consider joining the organization.
~ Lynette Cruz
Above: HICSC HOʻOLAULEʻA, ALONDRA PARK, JULY 15-16,2017 -- Aloha kākou. A long overdue Mahalo a nui loa to Lono Kollars, Sharon Kuʻuipo Paulo, and the members of HICSC for such a wonderful hoʻolauleʻa. To Shalee Kekawa and Audrey Alo (Kawaiopua) for all of your kōkua. Carol Lee Kamekona, mahalo to you for your manaʻo, pule and kōkua in preparation and execution of our kuleana. This two day event is very well attended and the plethora of Polynesian goods can satisfy your cravings. Pua Melia plants and stalks were one of the top items that I saw people purchasing. Kamehameha Schools even had a station were you could paʻi kalo for the most delicious poi. I could have eaten a pound of it myself. The lāhui came and searched through the Kūʻē Petitions Continues database for their kūpuna. Many knew their genealogy and had an easy time retrieving the info to find the original signatures of their kūpuna. Others needed more time, but realized that they knew more than they thought about their ʻohana. I've noticed that in Southern California, kānaka maoli are a bit more informed on the truth of the overthrow and subsequent history. They know that the narrative taught in the American school systems is a lie. There are those who still need to be introduced to the truth and to slowly emerge from the dark cocoon they have been living in. Those that stopped by our kiosk were ʻOhana Kawānanakoa, Afong family (Chinese Merchants during Kingdom times), ʻOhana Nahaleʻa who brought 4 generations. Many non-kānaka stopped to learn and added their names to the petition as they way of expressing their solidarity. And yes, I did discover more ʻOhana. It is always very rewarding to educate our lāhui and the rest of the world. I am blessed when doing this kuleana. Onipaʻa Kākou, Until the last Aloha ʻĀina.
~ Noeleen Caleira
Left: A King's Noble Vision -- Panel discussion at the Kanaʻina Building went very well tonight. Mahalo to Kippen Chu, Noelani Ah Yuen, Baron Ching, and Keanu Sai. Enthusiastic crowd. Lots of questions. Knowledgeable presenters. Awesome brief history of La Hoihoi Ea by Baron Ching following the flag raising. Good food. And the best thing -- new information! — with Steven Robello, Doreene Kealohanui, Justin Oda, Patrice Petrich, Kara Mel Lingo, Dee Texidor, Blaise K. Bissen, Corey Asano and Emanuela Borgnino.
Above: Aloha Festival -- A long overdue mahalo a nui loa to Kauʻi and her team for bringing Nā kūpuna o Kūʻē Petitions Continues to the San Mateo area this summer. Your aloha and hospitality made this journey a beautiful experience. Also sending mahalo to tita Kawaiopua, Aundrey Alo and her connections for delivering a bountiful harvest of lau ki for me to prep for our kāhili. Carol Lee Kamekona and I drove the 6 plus hours through the evening. We assembled our lau ki that evening in our hotel room to give us the needed blessings of our kūpuna and Ke Akua. Carol’s moʻopuna came and assisted us in decorating our area and manning the booth. There were many descendants who dropped by anxious to see the names of their kūpuna who signed against the annexation of Hawaiʻi to the USA in 1897. Many were moved when they laid their eyes on those signatures. Others had no idea of the truth surrounding our history and the impact the
Kūʻē Petition had in history. Supporters were plentiful as they understood the need to correct a long standing wrong in the world. We were quite busy on both days of this event. Of course I had cousins who came and I also met some new ʻohana. It just shows how our kūpuna are still pulling us together as a lāhui.
The event was very well attended and had a lot to offer everyone. There were workshops, entertainment from across Polynesia, merchandise and of course tons of food. There was an exhibit of beautiful surfboards as well as a koa canoe. If you are in the area next August, you should stop and check this event out. I’m hoping that we can do this again next year.
~ Noeleen Caldeira
To read the accounts from the eyes of the then Princess Liliʻuokalani, who would later become our last reigning monarch, of her journey with her sister-in-law Queen Consort Kapiʻolani to Queen Victoria's Jubilee, please read the biography:
HAWAII'S STORY BY HAWAII'S QUEEN By Liliʻuokalani 1898,
Above: Traveling in the Footsteps of a Queen -- Colette Higgins did a fine presentation on Queen Kapiʻolani at the Kanaʻina Building on the Palace grounds! I'm encouraging all Facebook peeps interested in hearing about our awesome Queen to invite Colette to do a presentation. Made me proud to know that this wonderful Hawaiian monarch truly represented the lāhui in her travels abroad as a woman full of grace, a lover of children, intelligent and curious, and kanaka. She felt, to me, based on written evidence and photos that Colette shared, like the mother of the country, our country, which she was. Mahalo, Colette, for sharing her with us. Mahalo, too, to all you awesome folks who brought ʻono grinds. Half of us stayed until 10:30 just eating and talking. Kiana Marshall brought great salads and dips and made plates of food for the houseless. Mahalo to Kaukaohu Wahilani,
Kapua Keliikoa-Kamai and Ohana, Clare Apana, John and Michelle Anelalani Sakurai, Christopher Sorrell, Patrice Petrich, and all the others who brought food to share. Don't know who brought what, but with the noodles and meatballs and all the other stuff, we really had a huge meal! Big mahalo for the thoughtfulness! Kiana's orange and onion salad was da bomb! Never ate anything like that before! The folks who show up for these presentations are wonderful and much appreciated by our speakers and our sponsors: Hui Aloha ʻĀina o Honolulu, Kūʻē Petition Continues,
Hui Aloha ʻĀina o Ka Lei Maile Aliʻi.
Follow in the footsteps of Queen Kapiʻolani & Princess Liliʻuokalani as Colette Higgins retraced the same route taken when the Royal Party travelled to Europe of the The Queens Jubilee. For more information on Colette Higgins’ sabbatical journey in 2016 . . . CLICK HERE
Above: 10th Annual Pacific Island Festival -- The PIHP (Pacific Islander Health Partnership) ʻohana is awesome. Their commitment to improve and enrich the lives of Pacific Islanders is full of aloha. I was honored to attend one of their meetings and be a part of the 10th Annual Pacific Islander Festival. A mahalo nui loa to Jane Pang, Charlene Kazner, Audrey Alo (Kawaiopua) and all the members of this organization.
For 2 days you could visit cultural exhibits of Hawaiʻi Nei, Samoa, Tahiti, Marshall Islands, Guam and others and meet the people from these lands. Plants and crafts as well as island inspired clothing and wares were plentiful. Music and dance of our Pacific Island cousins and of course hula and mele of our beloved Hawaiʻi Nei were a feast for the senses. The aroma of the many different foods made you want to eat more than you should. There was even a tapa being created on the spot with visitors being welcomed to add their artistic talents to the project. Health screenings, free flu shots, education on living a healthy life are also a part of this event.
Our kūpuna o Kūʻē Petitions were on display and many came to hear their voices rise from the pages. Descendants and supporters alike were moved by the patriotism of these kūpuna of the Hawaiian Kingdom as they expressed their love of Country and Queen. You could sense the rise of awareness in people as I explained the true facts of the illegal overthrow and subsequent events that lead to the current occupational status of Ka Pae`aina o Hawai`i Loa by the USA. Requests for suggested reading material on the subject were plentiful and luckily I had a hand out prepared. I believe that our efforts are bringing forth a new consciousness and that a huli is in fact taking place. Oh yeah, I ran into a classmate of mine who I hadn’t seen since graduation day many, many moons ago.
Above: Kūkaniloko -- Totally interesting presentation tonight at the Kanaina Building on the palace grounds. Mahalo to Martha H Noyes for sharing fascinating alignments between the things in heaven and the things on earth from the perspective of the middle, and in this case the middle is Kukaniloko. Ancient peoples had it down! So proud that our ancestors figured it out long before the "scientists" came along, and our kupuna had the foresight to name those places that corresponded with the outcomes of their observations and measurements. Akamai, indeed! Wahiawa Hawaiian Civic Club was in da house!Great to see Tom Lenchanko and Jo-Lin Lenchanko Kalimapau, as well as Anela Benson, Leilani Lindsey Kaapuni, Reni Aiai Bello, Ben Shafer, and so many others. It was a full house. And we had choke food donations, too. Mahalo to everyone for their generosity! Awesome evening. I'll be thinking about it while we're in Makua on Saturday.
Above: Sacramento Aloha Festival -- Aloha nui loa to the organizers and sponsors of the Aloha Festival in Sacramento, California. Aunty Mona Caldeira Foster, Beth Snow and the other members of the Kaʻōnohi Foundation really put on a huge event. The true aloha and hospitality of the Pacific Islands flows throughout. I was fortunate to spend a couple of nights with Aunty Mona and her ʻohana where we shared ideas, memories and most of all moʻokūauhau. It turns out that Aunty Mona and my children come from the same Portuguese family tree.
A large sampling of crafts, giftware, food, music and dance and workshops for a number of Pacific Island cultures were available. A feast for all your senses for sure. The Kūʻē Petitions Continues’ table was full all day. (I even missed my flight home.) Many descendants came to find their kūpuna and learn more of the historical facts on our Queen and Country. A three-generation connection, mother, son and grandsons stopped and signed. Non-kānaka also came to learn. There were those who wanted to know more and added their names in support. Many took my handout of suggested reading material and vowed to learn more. Met a group of cousins who stopped by and found that they were from the Kahoāliʻi ʻOhana. As we talked I explained my connection to their ancestor and of course nā honi and hugs followed. They continued to drop by our booth in couples throughout the day. It is beautiful to see how our lāhui continues to respect and aloha our ʻāina even though they have settled and make their homes far from our motherland. Aloha truly is a state of being. Hoping we can join the festivities next year.
Above: 2 Scoops of Aloha -- Hulō! Hulō! Hulō! The sun came out just in time for this long awaited event. I’m sure many voices were raised to the heavens for clear weather. Last year the event was cancelled due to high winds and heavy rains.
A big mahalo to Frank Johnson (KSBE Class of ’70) and the Kamehameha Schools Alumni of the Pacific Northwest for inviting the Kūʻē Petitions Continues to this event. There were an assortment of craft vendors featuring Hawaiian style products -- even a Seattle region poi manufacturer. Needless to say, the poi and kūlolo were ʻono and sold out real early. Laulau , kālua puaʻa, pastele and pastele stew plates were delicious. No doubt everyone left with a full ʻōpū and some mea ʻai to take home for later. Entertainment throughout the day featuring local musicians and Hālau were followed by a concert with Keauhou in the evening.
Our Kūʻē booth was busy throughout the day. I was very fortunate that my cousin Roger Britton stopped by early to say Aloha and never left. It’s pretty clear that he feels the need to share our message. Most who came by knew of the petition or at least heard about it, but few knew the impact and place in history it held. They were proud to learn of the courage their kūpuna had. Collected new signatures as some had signed previously at other events that were held in Washington State over the last year. A number of attendees asked if we were going to be at the AHCC Convention in November and other upcoming events and promised to stop by.
~ Noeleen Caldeira
Above: Taking Ownership of Ownership -- Last night's presentation at the Kanaʻina Building by Donovan Preza was mind-boggling. Didn't get many pics because my phone was livestreaming. Mahalo to those who tuned in. Apologies for not getting close-ups of the ppt. slides. Phone was mounted on a tripod (mahalo Michael Yano), so I wasn't paying much attention to it, as folks may have noticed. But at least got audio! Donovan offered to share his info with anyone who requested, so email him if you want it: firstname.lastname@example.org. I think this one deserves a second round, so we may schedule another presentation in January. Stay tuned! The point of all our presentations is to raise the level of understanding of Hawaiian history so the next time you/we hear negative things said about how Hawaiians were so gullible and easily led by all the haoles who came here in the 1800s, you'll start to think about why our land system was/is so different and so beneficial to Hawaiians... right up until 1893. So...Māhele good, U.S. military action in Hawaii in 1893 bad. We need to know and own our own history.
Above: Association of Hawaiiabn Civic Clubs 58th Annual Convention --
Woke up on the morning of my first day to man our Kūʻē Petition Continues table to a darkened sky, heavy with moisture and 35-degrees ̶ almost cold enough to bring snow down from the heavens. Said my pule for a blessed day, good energies and I stepped out the snowflakes started. Just a light flurry of flakes but by 10am it was falling steadily and many kānaka ran out to take pictures of themselves with the joy of being in snow for the first time.
The attendees were already milling about the conference rooms and I saw many familiar faces. The Wakinekona HCC was everywhere and many stopped by to say aloha and express gratitude that the Kūʻē Petitions Continues was there at the convention. Aunty Ruby Maunakea (who belongs to 8 different civic clubs) was rolling through on her scooter filming for ʻŌlelo. She was a crack up the whole day and continuously steered people our way as she traversed through the convention and its various meetings and workshops. Kumu Hina and Rowena Akana were among the crowd and were very gracious to everyone. Aunty Jane Pang and Charlene Kazner from ʻĀinahau HCC stopped by for some honi and aloha. Civic clubs from across the continent as well as Hawaiʻi were represented in all age categories. OHA Trustees and Kamehameha Schools were also there.
The Alaska HCC delegates and Arizona HCC delegates came looking for their kupuna and despite being born and raised on the continent knew their genealogies. Even kānaka who have previously visited Kūʻē Petitions Continues presentations stopped by to see their kūpuna's signature again. An elderly woman stopped by and my daughter (who was helping me) and I just fell in love with her. As she looked through the data base she commented on the name she was seeking to a young woman who was also searching the database. Hulo, the name mentioned was in both their genealogies. They hugged and kissed as they continued their journey. Both signed and I could feel my heart swelling as I watched the young woman escorting her new found aunty in her mobile wheelchair. My daughter commented that it felt as though she was back in time with her great-grandmother and her family and friends and that she could now understand why I do this. Another tall young man stopped by looking for his kūpuna and was elated to find us there. He had chicken skin as soon as he approached our table. Once he found his kupuna he commented that he felt a new sense of being and added his name to the present Kūʻē Petition. Moments like these are always experienced and are one of the reasons I find this kuleana so rewarding.
The Wreck supporters were abundant and as reported, the Board made sure that they pushed that agenda on all who attended.
Annelle Amaral and Kaleimana Lee continuously walked past our table but refused to acknowledge our presence or even look our way. They could not avoid passing us since our table was the first one in the walkway -- We had a good spot.
Despite being in the lion's den of Fe-Wreckers, it was apparent that not all civic club members are like minded. Many of the continental clubs have younger rosters who are not easily led. ~Noeleen Caldeira
I wasn't taking notes, but as Deborah mentioned the names of those students and former students who signed the petition, I could see those names in my mind's eye because of all the years of reading them whenever we laid the Kū'ē name signs on the Palace grounds or at Thomas Square or anywhere we took them. The connections are jumping out every time a new speaker shares info. Mahalo to those who attended last night. We had choke cake, donuts, malasadas, and other assorted goodies. Mahalo to Kiana Marshall for ono mini bundt cakes. Those disappeared early, and to Kaukaohu Wahilani and Moanike'ala Sitch ma for donuts and more cake! And of course, mahalo to Steven Robello, the all around take-care-of- everything guy, thank goodness, as well as president of Hui Aloha ʻĀina o Honolulu, tonight's sponsor, along with Kū'ē Petition Continues and Friends of ʻIolani Palace! And mahalo to Willy Kauai for use of projector. We look forward to him doing a presentation for us in January 2018. ~ Lynette Cruz
To view the livestream broadcast of The Kawaihaʻo Seminary - Not Forgotten presentation and be re-directed to Lynette Cruz's Facebook page CLICK HERE
recognized as an
Independent State in 1843.
To counter the strong possibility of foreign encroachment on Hawaiian territory, His Majesty King Kamehameha III dispatched a Hawaiian delegation to the United States and Europe with the power to settle difficulties with other nations, and negotiate treaties. This delegation's ultimate duty was to secure the recognition of Hawaiian Independence from the major powers of the world. In accordance with this goal, Timoteo Ha`alilio, William Richards and Sir George Simpson were commissioned as joint Ministers Plenipotentiary on April 8, 1842. Sir George Simpson, shortly thereafter, left for England, via Alaska and Siberia, while Mr. Ha`alilio and Mr. Richards departed for the United States, via Mexico, on July 8, 1842.
On December 19, 1842, the Hawaiian delegation, while in the United States of America, secured the assurance of United States President Tyler that the United States would recognize Hawaiian independence. The delegation then proceeded to meet their colleague, Sir George Simpson, in Europe and together they secured formal recognition from Great Britain and France. On April 1, 1843, Lord Aberdeen on behalf of Her Britannic Majesty Queen Victoria, assured the Hawaiian delegation that, "Her Majesty's Government was willing and had determined to recognize the independence of the Sandwich Islands under their present sovereign."
On November 28, 1843, at the Court of London, the British and French Governments entered into a formal agreement for the recognition of Hawaiian independence. The Proclamation read as follows: "Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the King of the French, taking into consideration the existence in the Sandwich Islands of a government capable of providing for the regularity of its relations with foreign nations, have thought it right to engage, reciprocally, to consider the Sandwich Islands as an Independent State, and never to take possession, neither directly or under the title of Protectorate, or under any other form, of any part of the territory of which they are composed. The undersigned, Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State of Foreign Affairs, and the Ambassador Extraordinary of His Majesty the King of the French, at the Court of London, being furnished with the necessary powers, hereby declare, in consequence, that their said Majesties take reciprocally that engagement."
As a result of the recognition of Hawaiian Independence in 1843 the Hawaiian Kingdom entered into Treaties and Conventions with the nations of Austria, Belgium, Bremen (presently Germany), Denmark, France, Germany, Hamburg (presently Germany), Italy, Hong Kong (former colony of England), Japan, Netherlands, New South Wales (former colony of England), Portugal, Russia, Samoa, the Swiss Confederation, Sweden, Norway, Tahiti (colony of France), United Kingdom, and the United States of America.